Monitoring & Measurement, Reporting and Verification
Monitoring refers to the process of gathering feedback on the outcomes of the implementation of REDD+ activities. The information collected will enable countries to monitor the outcomes of the policies and measures designed and deployed to support the implementation of REDD+.
The Measurement, Reporting and Verification of greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals by sinks is referred to as MRV. Measurement is the process of estimating anthropogenic forest-related emissions by sources and removals by sinks; forest carbon stocks; and changes in forest carbon stocks and forest area resulting from the implementation of REDD+ activities, following guidance and guidelines from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Under the UNFCCC, countries are expected to report these estimates to the UNFCCC Secretariat through an annex to their Biennial Update Reports (BURs) in a transparent and timely manner. The UNFCCC Secretariat then coordinates a process of verification of the estimates by a team of independent technical experts in Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF).
Under the UNFCCC, MRV systems are used to measure greenhouse gas emissions reductions and removals by sinks, including those resulting from the implementation of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs), which includes carbon accounting from any mitigation sector, and REDD+, which focuses only on mitigation in the forestry sector.