Reforestation in Grassland of Uchindile, Kilombero, Tanzania & Mapanda, Mufindi, Tanzania



The project covers two locations (Uchindile and Mapanda) and aims at reforesting 10,814 hectares of degraded land located in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania and conserve 7,565 hectares to protect local biodiversity. The project was the first in the world to receive validation by the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS), in 2009. Green Resources Ltd submitted the project for validation in 2007, as soon as the VCS guidelines for agriculture, forestry and land use (AFOLU) were released. The project aims to generate Voluntary Emissions Reductions (VERs) over 99 years, with a reserve buffer of 40%.

The project involves planting trees on grassland areas to contribute to the supply of high quality wood products and transmission poles both in the region and internationally. The project will also contribute to sustainable development by providing socio-economic benefits to local communities and training in environmental management and conservation of biodiversity and forest resources. The major purposes of the project activity are to: enhance forest and carbon stocks through reforestation and forest conservation; provide high quality wood products through reforestation activities which will help the Ministry of Natural Resources meet growing demands; support environmental conservation and preservation of ecosystem services through protection of forest resources and through enrichment planting with indigenous tree species; facilitate socio-economic development by promoting tree planting/reforestation activities and provide employment opportunities and additional income generation from selling carbon credits.

The project developer and implementer is Green Resources Ltd who started the project in 1997. The project was certified under the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)'s standard for the sustainable management of forests in 2008.

The Uchindile and Mapanda Forest Projects applied an approved Clean Development Mechanism methodology for afforestation/reforestation (A/R) under the A/R category of the VCS, rather than a REDD+ methodology. The project also applied for validation under the Climate, Community and Biodiversity Standard (CCB) to ensure that the project also provides support to local communities and promotes biodiversity. It was first approved under the CCB Standards First Edition Silver Level in October 2009 and was then validated and verified again under the CCB Standards Second Edition in June 2013.

Stakeholder engagement and participation

The project has carried out extensive stakeholder consultation to inform the project design, and followed FSC guidelines in relation to procedures. Stakeholders were consulted through meetings, semi-structured interviews, and focus group discussions to capture information pertaining to the project. Participatory Rural Appraisals (PRA) were carried out in the villages to identify the problems, views and concerns of local stakeholders and incorporated into the project design and management plan. These are carried out on annual basis to continue inform project developers about local stakeholders' views on project activities and progress. 

Land tenure arrangements and carbon rights

The project promoters followed the procedures for land acquisition as guided by Ministry of Lands and Human Settlements and has title deeds for this area. The lease is for a period of 99 years from 1st April 2000. Mapanda Forest Project has two titles of ownership both for a period of 99 years from 06th December 2003. The crediting period follows VCS guidelines, and this project will use a 99 years fixed crediting period starting in 2002.


Geographical Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing will be used for verification and monitoring of the proposed ARR VCS project activity.

Land Tenure Before Implementation

Green Resources Ltd (GRL) inherited land titles from Escarpment Forestry Company Ltd which was taken over by GRL in 2001. Land was periodically used for livestock grazing but was otherwise classified as un-managed grassland. 

Land Tenure After Implementation

GRL have entered a lease agreement (99 years) with the Government of Tanzania for the purpose of long-term reforestation.