Measuring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) for low carbon development: Learning from experience in Asia



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To keep the global temperature rise due to climate change below 2 degrees, GHG emissions into the atmosphere must peak before 2020. This means that, emissions should be reduced to half the current level by 2050. This requires far more significant levels of cooperation between developed and developing countries, so that developing countries can develop a basic infrastructure and social system to promote appropriate mitigation measures, drawing upon enhanced finance opportunities. Low-carbon technology is also an important issue in this regard. Only through enhanced collaboration can the international climate change regime be substantially changed to one where not only developed but developing countries are actively taking mitigation actions together.

In the Bali Action Plan of 2007, "the Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions in each country" (NAMAs) were proposed, and the subsequent Cancun Agreement in 2009 stimulated assessment and development of policy frameworks for low-carbon development and green economy in many Asian countries. Developing an inventory of the current GHG emissions together with an effective MRV system will be an essential first step to identify important mitigation actions. 

This report intends to provide lessons and experiences so far obtained in Asia, through a variety of case studies, for the design and implementation of effective MRV systems. Development of an effective MRV system will require establishment of a regulatory framework, development of tools and methodologies, and enhancement of capacity of major stakeholders concerned, as set out in this report.

It is vital to develop practical and yet science-based MRV systems backed by an appropriate institutional framework, taking into account different socio-economic circumstances of individual countries. This MRV report is the first small effort by IGES to achieve this, and further refinements and development are envisaged in the future. 

This report is the result of an IGES-wide effort, involving different research groups with diverse backgrounds, including Climate Change, Natural Resource Management, Sustainable Consumption and Production, Economy and Environment, Governance and Capacity, Business, as well as the Kitakyushu Urban Centre. I would like to thank Professor Hidefumi Imura of Yokohama City University, for his valuable inputs and advice. I also very much appreciate the substantial coordination efforts made by Mr. Kazuhisa Koakutsu, Deputy Director of the Market Mechanism Group of IGES, throughout the process. I hope that the report will provide useful inputs toward the discussion on MRV and, ultimately, contribute to the development of low-carbon policy and NAMAs in the region.


Koakutsu, Kazuhisa
Usui, Kenta
Watarai, Aya
Takagi, Yusuke