The Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation (MFSC) is the lead institution for the management of forest resources in Nepal. The Department of Forests (DOF) and the Department of Forest Research and Survey (DFRS) are the main coordinating departments tasked with developing and implementing sub-sections of REDD Readiness. Specifically, the DOF regulates forest conservation and management through District Forest Offices (DFOs), enforcing forest laws and policies and providing technical support to community-based management regimes. The DFRS is responsible for the monitoring of forest cover and resources. Issues relating to wildlife, biodiversity and protected areas are managed by the Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation (DNPWC) (Bushley & Khatri, 2011). Community Forest Users Groups (CFUGs) are main resource managers at ground level with technical support from DFOs. At the sub-national level, a few project-based networks of CFUGs such as the REDD network and CFUG Coordination Committees are also formed to work on specific projects.
According to Forest Action Nepal, NGO actors can be divided into specific functions, which include federations of community-based organizations such as the Federation of Community Forest Users, Nepal (FECOFUN) and the Association of Collaborative Forest Users, Nepal (ACOFUN). National associations for supporting the rights of Indigenous Peoples and marginalised groups include the National Federation of Indigenous Nationalities (NEFIN), the Dalit NGO Federation (DNF), Dalit Alliance for Natural Resources (DANAR), and the Himalayan Grassroots Women’s Natural Resource Management Association (HIMAWANTI). International, national and regional NGOs that engage in projects and research include the Asian Network for Sustainable Agriculture and Bio resources (ANSAB), the International Central for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), World Wildlife Fund Nepal (WWF) Nepal, CARE, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and Forest Action Nepal, in addition to various representatives of donor organisations such as the UK Department for International Development (DFID), the Sustainable Development Commission UK (SDC), and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) (Bushley & Khatri, 2011). Compared to other countries, Nepal is considered to have an institutional advantage with regards to REDD+ as it has strong participatory management institutions, and as the institutional structures that exist for the purpose of outreach and consultation processes are effective (Bushley & Khatri, 2011).
BUSHLEY, BR & KHATRI, DB. 2011. REDD+: Reversing, Reinforcing and Reconfiguring Decentralized Forest Governance in Nepal? Forest Action Nepal